Showing posts with label Money. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Money. Show all posts

Tuesday, 17 July 2018

High Power Money

July 17, 2018 0
                                                                                
                                                                 High power  Money
Money Indian Economy

In the previous article, we have seen how money  stock is maintain by the Reserve Bank. Today, let us understand all these concepts with an example. (Reference article dated 14/07/2018)

Suppose the Reserve Bank of India printed a 2000 rupees note and suppose that only single person John lives in the country ..

At this time the M0 = Rs2000

Because in M0, currency notes and coins are counted by the people.
Similarly, in the M1, we can also calculate M2as well as Rs 2,000.

 In M1, M2 and M3 are measured, so M2 and M3 will also be Rs 2000.


Suppose John put this money in bank's demand deposits. At such times, M0 will be zero and M1, M2 and M3 will be Rs. 2,000.

Suppose John took this money and kept it for 1 year. Now both M0 and M1 will be zero and M2 and M3 will be Rs 2,000.

Suppose John remits this money for more than 1 year term, then at this rate M0, M1, M2 will be zero and M3 will be Rs 2,000.


Monetary Base :

M0 is called reserve money.

Similarly, M0 is also known as monetary base or high power money..

So M1, M2, M3 is called money supply.

Both reserve money and money supply concept are different.

M0 is universal. So M3 is the least liquid.

It is easy to convert money into M1 because it has money and currency deposits in people's hands. It is most difficult to convert money into M3 because the bank created by it has money.



  •  M0 is called Reserve money
If reserve money is raising has increased that money supply is increasing.
 Due to the ability to increase the supply of money, M0 is said to be the reserve money  or high power money.
 next article we learn more information..............Keep Reading...stay connected 

Saturday, 14 July 2018

How to calculate money stocks in India

July 14, 2018 0
  •                                                           Money stocks   
  • Money Indian Economy

  • In the previous article, we saw information about money and currency. In this article, we will understand the money stocks.

  • Money stocks in India are regulated by the Reserve Bank. The Reserve Bank uses the concept M0, M1, M2, M3.
  • In this, the money released by the Reserve Bank, money from the public, the money in the bank, post office, money generated from the bank is counted.

  • According to the old method, five methods were used like M0, M1, M2, M3, M4. The Reserve Bank special committee has suggested changes in the new seven methods of M0, M1, M2, M3, L1, L2 and L3.

  • According to the old method

  • M0 - Bank deposits in the Reserve Bank + People's currency notes and coins + 
  • other deposits in the Reserve Bank

  • M1 - People's currency notes and coins+ Demand deposits of people in the 
  • Bank + Others deposits in the Reserve Bank

  • M2 - M1 + Savings deposits in the post office

  • M3 - M1 +Fixed Deposits in Banks

  • M4 - M3 + Total deposits in the post office
  • Money Indian Economy

  • According to new methods

  • M0 - Bank deposits in the Reserve Bank + People's currency notes and coins, + other deposits in the Reserve Bank.


  •  M1- People's currency notes and coins + Demand deposits of people in the Bank + Others deposits in the Reserve Bank

  • M2 - M1 + current accounts deposits sold by the bank + 1 year deposit

  • M3 - M2 + term deposits with more than 1 year + Bank's Demand Due and Term Loan

  • L1 - M3 + Post Office Deposits (excluding National Savings Certificates)

  • L2 - L1 + Fixed Deposits from refinancing and term loan institutions + Fixed debt from these institutions + Certified deposits of these institutions.

  • L3 - L2 + Public deposits in non-banking financial institutions 

  • How to work all these concept we will learn in next article....stay connected 

Thursday, 12 July 2018

Money and its various forms

July 12, 2018 0

            Money and its various forms



Money is any such thing which is legal, independent and widely accepted in the form of a means of exchange, loan repayment or valuation of money.Money is the circulating medium of exchange as defined by a government.

Medium of exchange

Unit of account

Store of value 

Purchasing power

These are the main functions of money.

The difference between currency and money

Currency is something that is commonly used as a means of exchange for money in a country. This includes metal coins and notes. Their currency area is limited.

Various forms of money:


  Near  money :


It is easily possible to convert such goods into money. Example Treasury Bill, Government Securities.
Called near money. It has high liquidity.


Real money:


The money prevailing in any country that is used in daily life is the real money. This money is used as the medium of exchange and general value storage of the country.


Representative currency;

It is a money that is known as a medium of exchange and a value scale but does not have its own value. The currency is supported behind any valuable metal (gold) while issued. Since the currency represents the precious metal, it is called a representative paper currency.

There are two types of this

1) Convertible paper currency: 

 The currency which can be converted into a valuable metal (silver or silver). The government is responsible for making such invoice valuable.

2)  Non-convertible paper currency: 

currency that does not change in any valuable metal . Similarly, the government does not have the responsibility to change such a valuable metal .


Bank Money:


Under this, there are such things which are operated by the bank and payment is also done by the bank. This demand is payable on the bank deposit amount. For example check, bank demand drafts, etc.